By using the correct number sets for the Tanakh and the New Testament, 21 examples of biblical gematria are presented in an attempt to pass the threshold of reasonable doubt about the existence of intentional gematria embedded in the Bible.
The prevailing academic attitude to gematria is surmised by the brief page about it at the online Yale University Library:
“While many scoff at using this “cute word play” as a means of explaining the Bible, many Kabbalists — Jewish mystics who find great power in the spirituality of words — see it as a valid form of Biblical interpretation.”[i]
Overall, archaeologists and epigraphers have yet to appreciate how gematria can aid them to better understand the ancient near east, and biblical gematria is often mistakenly characterized as something liminal in nature. Yet there are respected and credible authors that defy the generally prevailing dismissive attitude to the subject, and who treat gematria as the product of ancient scholarship rather than mysticism. Victor Hurowitz points out “numerological principles in the organization of the book [of Proverbs]” and demonstrates that Gematria has Mesopotamian precedents[ii]. Israel Knohl states “it is not out of the question that this technique was already known in the biblical period and was used specifically in religious contexts”[iii], and has hypothesized “the fact that the representation of the numerical values of letters is not demonstrated in mundane use in ancient Israel before the Hellenistic period may point to the possibility that this method was first a sacred secret knowledge that was kept in closed circles.”[iv] Stephen J. Lieberman writes “we must admit that it is possible such techniques were employed in biblical texts. The means were available, and if the desire was present, it was certainly possible for hidden messages to be put into the Bible.”[v] These authors reject the idea that Gematria was something inherited from the Greeks, although Lieberman believed that any hidden content in the Bible might go undetermined without the Hebrew commentaries with and proximate to the biblical writers. As we shall demonstrate in this paper, this last view was more pessimistic than necessary, and with the following reconstruction of the exegetical tools of biblical writers, we can conclusively prove that Greek Isopsephy in the New Testament owes it providence to Biblical Hebrew Gematria. It is a credit to the alertness and scholarship of all these individuals that they were able to piece together the disparate clues leading to the right view even without knowing the correct number system used by biblical authors.
This brief study will demonstrate the methods by which biblical scribes’ practised gematria in the ancient near east. By using the same gematria values for the letters that were known to biblical scribes such as Ezekiel or John, it has been possible to reconstruct the methods and conventions widely followed by biblical writers. These biblical gematria values are different from the ones openly recorded in the Talmud, the Mishnah, and various Kabbalistic texts. To date, any biblical studies of gematria have used the incorrect letter values, which is (to borrow a metaphor from Origen) like putting the wrong keys in a locked door.
Biblical Gematria should be regarded as ancient math that was practiced at a time before mathematical notation was invented, with the logic of the language employed in its stead. Biblical writers used an array of sophisticated methods of gematria to encode several fields of information. Most often the embedded information is typological or embedded as a reverence to God, but sometimes more prosaic forms of information are included; such as the number of days in a year, or days in Summer, or troop numbers sent in battle, and it’s because gematria conveys information of this type that it should be of interest to archeologists and epigraphers, and not just anthropologists. Researchers also need to be aware when the text is being led by gematria so that they can weigh how relevant or useful the open text really is to them, and this is crucial when it comes to the dating and verification of historical events.
Gematria is the art of writing and reading alphanumeric text; that is – text that has been written with the dual intent that the content is meaningful in the spoken word and mathematically.
Biblical gematria used conventions of language to describe the mode or logic of the calculation (+, -, /, *, etc.) at a time prior to the invention of special math notation. Words such as הִנֵּה֩ which is usually translated as “Behold!” are there to indicate gematria is present in the text afterwards. The phrases “In the days”, “And he saw” or “And he said” are also indicators. The words את and ואת (et, and v’et), as well as functioning as object markers, usually signify addition in gematria, although to be technically rigorous about it they signify calculation. In rare cases this calculation may signal subtraction instead.
The word כל (meaning ‘all’) signals the reader to count everything after it. The word על (meaning ‘on’ or ‘to’) denotes that one word value is part of another words’ value and that is usually subtracted. For instance, when “and darkness” is on the “face of the deep” in Genesis 1:2, we subtract “and darkness” from “face of the deep” and add the value of “light” to find the number 365 (days a year). According to the conventions of biblical gematria, the values of verbs tend to be omitted unless the כל signal is flagged in the expression.
Gematria is written with a specific number set and read using exactly the same number set. The argument that “it doesn’t really matter what number set you use”, comes from the fallacy of believing that gematria is something imposed upon the text by the reader rather than an inherent feature of the text that was deliberately put there by its authors. If the point of the text is to tell you there are 365 days in a year, but your incorrect number set is giving you a different result, then you have not received nor understood the meaning of the text.
The number system of Biblical gematria is very similar to Standard gematria (Mispar Ragil), and 20 of the 22 letters bear the exact values. The final forms of the letters hold the same values as their normal counterparts as we would expect of a system inherent to the Paleo-Hebrew script and potentially of a distinct number set within the Proto-Consonantal Script:
א=1 ב=2 ג=3 ד=4 ה=5 ו=6 ז=7 ח=8 ט=9 י=10 כ=20 ל=30 מ=40 נ=50 ס=60 ע=70 פ=80 צ=90 ק=100 ר=200 ש=300 ת=400 ך=20 ם=40 ן=50 ף=80 ץ=90
א=1 ב=2 ג=3 ש=3 ד=4 ת=4 ה=5 ו=6 ז=7 ח=8 ט=9 י=10 כ=20 ל=30 מ=40 נ=50 ס=60 ע=70 פ=80 צ=90 ק=100 ר=200 ך=20 ם=40 ן=50 ף=80 ץ=90
α=1 β=2 γ=3 δ=4 ε=5 ζ=7 η=8 θ=9 ι=10 κ=20 λ=30 μ=40 ν=50 ξ=60 ο=70 π=80 ρ=100 σ=200 τ=3 υ=4 φ=20 χ=40 ψ=50 ω=80 ϝ=6 ς=200 ϟ=90 ϡ=90
To arrive at these values, the Standard Isopsephy values are adjusted to match their Biblical Gematria counterparts, and so we use the extended version of Standard (which has the final forms of the letters extending into the hundreds) as a key. For example: because Standard Gematria (SG) has Shin as 300 but Biblical Gematria counts Shin with the value of 3, then Greek Tau is adjusted to 3 rather than 300; and because (SG) counts Peh sofit as 800, but in Biblical Gematria (BG) sofits have no different values to the normal letters so Greek Omega is counted as 80 rather than 800; and because Kaph sofit is 500 by (SG) but is 20 by (BG) then Phi, which has the Standard Isopsephy value of 500 is adjusted to hold the value of 20.
Due to the fact that there is no natural relationship between the Greek letters Phi (20) and Kappa (20) as there is for Kaph and Kaph sofit which is the same letter with the only difference being the Kaph sofit appears at the end of a word, then it follows that Biblical Gematria was ported to the Greek script and not the other way on. Standard Isopsephy can be converted to Biblical Isopsephy by following how Biblical Gematria was changed to Standard Gematria, but Standard Gematria cannot be converted back to Biblical Gematria by simply comparing Standard Isopsephy with Biblical Isopsephy, and this conclusively proves the case that Biblical Isopsephy emerged from Biblical Gematria.
To attempt to pass the threshold of reasonable doubt about the presence of gematria in the bible, I’ve presented 21 examples of it in situ and also in some external sources. I’ve assembled two sets of data; the first set is comprised of relatively straight forward examples of biblical gematria or Isopspehy, while the second set illustrates more complex examples that may combine some element of logical riddling with the language. I’ve tried to give as close to a word to word translation, but this does mean the Tanakh sounds a little odd to speakers of English.
An online app [http://www.shematria.com] has been coded to calculate exclusively with biblical gematria, which you are welcome to use to check these examples or to do some research of your own. Mobile users should use this link instead: shematria.pythonanywhere.com. This app is a community resource and there are no charges associated with its use and no personal information is asked for or required.
Examples of Biblical Gematria:
a) Genesis 1:1:
בראשית ברא אלהים את השמים ואת הארץ
In the beginning created Elohim the heavens and the earth.
בראשית (220) + אלהים (86) + השמים (98) + הארץ(296) = 700.
In the beginning + Elohim + The Heavens + The Earth = 700.
אלהים (86) + השמים (98) + הארץ(296) = 480.
Elohim + the Heavens + the Earth = 480.
b) Malachi 4:6 [The last verse of the Tanakh]:
והשיב לב אבות על בנים ולב בנים על אבותם פן אבוא והכיתי את הארץ חרם
And he shall turn the heart of the fathers to the children and the heart of the children to their fathers lest I come and strike the earth with a curse.
לב + אבות+ בנים = 147.
Heart + of the fathers + the sons = 147.
ולב +בנים + אבותם = 193.
And heart + of the sons + their fathers = 193.
מלאכי + והכיתי + הארץ + חרם = 700
Malachi + and strike + the earth + with a curse = 700.
700 – 147 – 193 = 360.
והארץ היתה תהו ובהו וחשך על פני תהום ורוח אלהים מרחפת על פני המים
ויאמר אלהים יהי אור ויהי אור
And the earth was formless and void and darkness was on the face of the deep. And the spirit Elohim hovered on the face of the waters.
And said Elohim, Let there be light, and there was light.
והארץ + היתה+ תהו + ובהו = 360.
And the earth + was + formless + and void = 360.
פני תהום – וחשך + אור= 365.
Face of the deep – and darkness + Light = 365.
ולא יקרא עוד את שמך אברם והיה שמך אברהם כי אב המון גוים נתתיך
And not called longer your name Abram, and shall be your name Abraham; for father the many nations will make.
אברהם = 248.
Abraham = 248.
המון גוים נתתיך = 248.
The many + nations + will make = 248.
e) The days of the week from Genesis 1:
ראשון + שני + שלישי + רביעי + חמישי + שישי + שבת = 777.
First + Second + Third + Fourth + Fifth + Sixth + Seventh = 777.
בעדן גן אלהים היית כל אבן יקרה מסכתך אדם פטדה ויהלם תרשיש שהם וישפה ספיר נפך וברקת וזהב מלאכת תפיך ונקביך בך ביום הבראך כוננו׃
In Eden garden Elohim became all stone precious your covering Sardius Topaz and Diamond Beryl Onxy, and Jasper Sapphire Turquoise and Emerald and Gold workmanship of your timbrels and pips in you in the day you were created were prepared.
ונקביך תפיך וזהב וברקת נפך ספיר וישפה שהם תרשיש ויהלם פטדה אדם = 1740.
Sardius + Topaz + and Diamond + Beryl + Onxy + and Jasper + Sapphire + Turquoise + and Emerald + and Gold + of your timbrels + and pips = 1740.
“in the day you were created” is code for the sixth day of creation (when humans were created), and therefore: 1740 / 6 = 290, which is numerically identical to “צר” Tyre, (which is the subject of the lamentation).
Biblical Gematria is not confined to the Torah but appears in the Christian New Testament. The values of the Hebrew letters were ported across to the Greek script, most likely by early Gnostic Christians. It has been a matter of speculation why exactly 153 fish were caught by the disciples of Jesus, as we are told by John the evangelist, and the answer is provided by Gematria, which when composed in the Greek script is termed Isopsephy.
λέγει αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Ἐνέγκατε ἀπὸ τῶν ὀψαρίων ὧν ἐπιάσατε νῦν.
ἀνέβη Σίμων Πέτρος καὶ εἵλκυσεν τὸ δίκτυον εἰς τὴν γῆν μεστὸν ἰχθύων μεγάλων ἑκατὸν πεντήκοντα τριῶν· καὶ τοσούτων ὄντων οὐκ ἐσχίσθη τὸ δίκτυον.
Jesus told them “bring some of the fish you have just caught.” So Simon Peter went abroad and drag the net to land. It was full of large fish, 153. And although there were so many, the net was not torn.
153 + Ιχθυων + μεγαλων + δικτυον + γην = 777
153 + fish + large + net + land = 777.
Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ = 719.
Jesus Christ = 719, and is significant because every twelve hours the hour hand and seconds hands of an analog clock align exactly 719 times and in John 11:9 it says: Jesus answered, ‘Are there not twelve hours of daylight? If anyone walks in the daytime, he will not stumble, because he sees by the light of this world.’
719 is also the value of δεξιας αστερων (right hand stars). In Revelations 1:20 the verse refers to seven stars “which you saw on the right hand of me”, and this may be a coded reference indicating that John’s spiritual visitor is Jesus.
ויבא בין מחנה מצרים ובין מחנה ישראל ויהי הענן והחשך ויאר את הלילה ולא קרב זה אל זה כל הלילה
So it came between the camp of Egypt and the camp of Israel; and there was the cloud and the darkness, yet it lightened the night. Thus the one did not come near the other all night.
(Egypt 380 / 2) + (Israel 244 / 2) + 217 (the cloud and the darkness) + 217 (it lightened) – 80 (the night) = 666.
ויטע אשל בבאר שבע ויקרא שם בשם יהוה אל עולם׃
And he planted a tamarisk in Beersheba and called there in the name YHVH AL HaOlam.
ויטע אשל בבאר שבע שם בשם יהוה אל עולם = 777.
And he planted a tamarisk in Beersheba there in the name YHVH AL HaOlam = 777.
ויגדלו הנערים ויהי עשו איש ידע ציד איש שדה ויעקב איש תם ישב אהלים׃
So grew the boys and was Esau a man skillful hunter a man of the field and Jacob a man peaceful living in tents.
עֵשָׂ֗ו + צַ֖יִד + יַעֲקֹב֙ = 365
Esau + Hunter + Jacob = 365.
אחד ראש: אחדותו ראש ייחודותו: תמורתו אחד = 777
AChD RASh: AChDVThV RASh YYChVDVThV: ThMVRThV AChD
One is His Beginning; one is His Individuality; His Permutation One!
Aleister Crowley discovered biblical Gematria in 1900, and he ported it across to the Latin writing script to use with the English language. However, in this example he uses the Gematria directly with the transliterated Hebrew script, which he gives in Sepher Sephiroth.
מנסעף צק רשת אב = 700.
These are the letters between Lamed and Gimel. According to Rav Shmuel Baruch Ganot Shlita, this is the reason why Lag Ba’Omer (the Jewish bonfire festival) is so named rather than being Gal Ba’Omer.
m) Genesis 6:2:
ויראו בני האלהים את בנות האדם כי טבת הנה ויקחו להם נשים מכל אשר בחרו
And saw sons the elohim daughters the men were good behold and took for themselves wives of all they chose.
With standard Gematria the Hebrew word for “daughters” has the Gematria value of 458, and Hebrew word for “sons” has the value of 62. As you can see, with Biblical Gematria the results have an equal value.
בני + האלהים+ בנות+ האדם+ כי+ טבת= 310
Sons + the Elohim + daughters + the men + were + good = 310.
בחרו + אשר + מכל+ נשים = 613.
Wives + of all + they + chose = 613.
n) Ruth 1:2.
ושם האיש אלימלך ושם אשתו נעמי ושם שני בניו מחלון וכליון אפרתים מבית לחם יהודה ויבאו שדי מואב ויהיו שם
And name the man Elimelech and name his wife Niomi and name of two their sons Mahon and Chilion Ephrathites from the house of Bethlehem Judah and they went to the country Moab and remained there.
אלימלך נעמי מחלון וכליון אפרתים לחם יהודה
Elimelech + Naomi + Mahon + and Chilion + Ephrathites + Bethlehem + Judah = 1000.
o) Genesis 2:2:
ויכל אלהים ביום השביעי מלאכתו אשר עשה וישבת ביום השביעי מכל מלאכתו אשר עשה׃
And ended Elohim in the day the seventh his work which he had done and rested in the day the seventh from all his work which he had done.
השביעי מלאכתו אשר עשה וישבת ביום השביעי = 666.
The seventh from his work that he had done and rested in the day the seventh = 666.
p) Psalms 19:1
השמים מספרים כבוד אל ומעשה ידיו מגיד הרקיע
The heavens declare the glory of El and his handiwork shows the firmament.
השמים כבוד אל ומעשה ידיו הרקיע = 700.
The heavens glory El and his handiwork the firmament = 700
וישלח ישראל את ימינו וישת על ראש אפרים והוא הצעיר ואת שמאלו על ראש מנשה שכל את ידיו כי מנשה הבכור׃
And stretched Israel his right hand and laid on the head of Ephraim and who the younger and his left hand on the head of Manasseh crossing his hands for Manasseh the firstborn.
ישראל + אפ + מ= 365.
Israel + Aph + M = 365
Adding the first syllable of the names was indicated when Israel when laid his hands ‘on the head’ of Ephraim and Manasseh – this was a coded reference meaning that we should add ‘the head’ meaning ‘the first’ from each name.
ויהי המה הלכים הלוך ודבר והנה רכב אש וסוסי אש ויפרדו בין שניהם ויעל אליהו בסערה השמים׃
And there as they still went on and talked and behold: a chariot of fire and horses of fire, and separated between the two of them, and went up Elijah in a whirlwind to the heavens.
אליהו = 52.
Elijah = 52.
רכב אש וסוסי אש = 372.
A chariot of fire and horses of fire = 372.
אליהו בסערה השמים = 487.
Elijah in a whirlwind to the heavens = 487.
(372 / 2) + (52 x 2) + 487 = 777.
From 2 Kings 2:9-11: 372 is divided by two because it says the chariot and horses were separated between the two of them. 52 is multiplied by 2 because Elisha requests that Elijah gives a double portion of his spirit and Elijah agrees this should happen when he is taken.
ודמות פניהם פני אדם ופני אריה אל־הימין לארבעתם ופני־שור מהשמאול לארבעתן ופני־נשר לארבעתן
And the likeness of their faces, the face of a man and the face of a lion on the right side [of the word] to them four and had the face of an ox to the left [of the word] to them four and had the face of an eagle to them four.
This complex gematria puzzle relies on the Seven Palaces for its solution and interpretation. Ezekiel calls the Seven Palaces ‘the wheel’, and his riddle of ‘a wheel within a wheel’ probably refers to the
The Seven Palaces
Gates of the Seven Palaces
paleohebrew letter teth which resembles a wheel by its shape:
The Seven Palaces is one of the best kept secrets of Kabbalah, and it’s beyond the scope of this brief monogram to explore its role in Judaism or its providence; however I will briefly say here that my studies indicate that it was probably sacred to the Canaanite God El and his son Hadad. Those who are interested in learning more about it should refer to my book ‘Chariot’.
The circular areas of the diagram are the palaces, while the connecting areas between them are called paths. Gates for paths are made when the value of a paths’ letter is added to the value of the palaces at either side of it. Gates for palaces are made when the value of every connecting path and palace are added to the letter of the palace. For instance, to make the gate of the aleph (on the right hand side);
1 Palace of the Aleph
9 Path of Teth + 1 the other Aleph = 10
6 The Vav + 2 the Palace of Beth = 8
20 The Kaph + 4 the Palace of Daleth = 24
10 The Yod + 200 the Palace of Resh = 210
1 + 10 + 8 + 24 + 210 = 253.
The man, lion, ox and eagle relate to the diagram in this way;
Man = אדם = 45 = the gate of Mem.
Lion = אַרְיֵ֤ה = 216 on the right side of the word = אַרְיֵ֤ = 211 (gate of the path of Yod).
Ox = שׁ֥וֹר = 209 on the left side of the word = וֹר = 206 (gate of the path with four letters; (שתצק) Shin, Tav, Tsade & Qoph).
Eagle = נֶ֖שֶׁר = 253.
Man = Gate of Mem.
Lion = Gate of Yod.
Ox = Fourfold (שתצק) Gate.
Eagles = Palace of Aleph.
Mem (40) Yod (10) Shin (3) Tav (4) Tsade (90) Qoph (100) Aleph (1) = 248, which is numerically identical with the value of Abraham (248), and suggests that the 4 living creates who had the likeness of a man (Ez 1:5) was like Abraham. This would also explain why Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish once exclaimed: “The patriarchs they themselves were the Divine Chariot!”
Ωδε η σοφια εστιν· ο εχων νουν ψηφισατω τον αριθμον του θηριου, αριθμος γαρ ανθρωπου εστιν· και ο αριθμος αυτου εξακοσιοι εξηκοντα εξ.
Here the wisdom is. The one having understanding, let him count the number of the beast, number for a man it is, and the one number of it is six hundred, sixty, six.
We count 1 for the one who has understanding, and 3 for understanding because understanding (Binah) is the name of the third sephirah of the Tree of Life diagram.
ανθρωπου εστιν + 1 + 3 = 666.
A man it is + 1 + 3 = 666.
והפרתי אתך במאד מאד ונתתיך לגוים ומלכים ממך יצאו׃
And I will make fruitful you exceedingly greatly I will make nations and kings from you will come.
לגוים ומלכים = 235.
Nations and Kings = 235.
To understand the gematria of this verse we must multiply the name of Abraham by 10 for 2480 and refer to the Seven Palaces once again. Aleph, Beth etc not only represents the value of 1, but when they are written as a large characters they represent the thousands, thus large aleph = 1000, and large beth = 2,000, and this is useful for calculations involving time. When all the gates of the Seven Palaces are added together, the sum total is 6930, which is 990 x 7, which is only 9 days away from the modern calculation of 235 synodic months in the 19 year metonic cycle. When the Palace of the Beth represents 2,000 rather than 2, then the total for the gate of gimel/heh/Zayin + the gate of samekh is 2480.
The Seven Palaces is also the reason why so many gematria calculations in the bible sum to 777. When all of the main gates of the Seven Palaces for all the paths are added together the sum is 3108 which is 777 * 4, and when the wheel is divided into 3 columns their total = 777.
בחאמדרה + בגהזרסה + בואכדשתצקה = 777
260 + 282 + 235 = 777.
I dare say these astonishing numerical concordances deeply impressed ancient peoples as direct evidence of the existence of a creator deity bringing the heavens and the earth into existence according to the schematic of the Seven Palaces.
It should be emphasized that these 21 examples of gematria and Isopsephy are just a fraction of the wealth of gematria present in the Bible. Gematria is intrinsic and inherent to most books of the Bible, and these texts of the Tanakh were most likely selected for inclusion in the cannon by a school or class of people who had an appreciation of their hidden content. An exception is “The Song of Solomon” which does not appear to feature any significant gematria, so we must surmise it was selected for the beauty and reverence of its prose and allegory. Psalms does contain gematria, but working with the book often leaves me with the impression that some of it has been disrupted, possibly during the process of setting the verses to music.
The gematria of the Tanakh begins and ends with the value of 700, which has a twofold relevance; to the seven days of creation and to the seven palaces of the heavens and the earth. The fact that the gematria value of 700 begins and ends the Tanakh suggests that gematria was carefully considered by its compilers, generally believed to be the Council of Yavneh.
David Miano suggests that 480 years represents an Era and he notes that biblical writers appear to have written or adjusted their open chronology to fit an idealized period of time. He cites the chronology that spans for 480 years between the Exodus (Josh 14:10) and the 4th year of Solomon’s reign when he begins building the Temple (1 Kings 6:1)[vi]. According to 1 Kings, 480 years after the Israelites left Egypt, Solomon finished the Temple in 3 sections over a 7 year period – [6:9], [6:14], [6:38]. Yet one day is 480 minutes x 3 (= 1440 minutes), so this is typological to the way God created the heaven and the earth in a single day. Many authors (Hurowitz[vii], Bloch-Smith[viii], Mazor[ix], Stager[x], Wenham[xi]) have discussed a likely typological connection between the first Temple and the Hebrew story of creation, seeing it as the private pleasure garden of Eden on Earth, but a full study has yet to be done on the architectonic gematria of Solomons’ Temple and its relationship to the Seven Palaces and the Creation narrative.
The basis of the gematria of the Seven Palaces reflects its Canaanite origin, with the number of אל (31) meaning the God EL x 7 being the sum total of the letters of the palaces, as well as the gate of gimel/heh/zayin. The letters Heh Daleth Daleth correspond with the three lower palaces to make the word Hadad, who according to the Ba’al cycle texts of Ugarit lived in the Seven Palaces of his father El[xii]. Given the correspondences of the gates of the palaces with the 19 year metonic cycle, it may be the case that Canaanites and Israelites were the first to employ the cycle rather than the Babylonians.
It is not known why there were two letters of the alephbet with the same values of 3 (gimel and shin) and 4 (daleth and tav), and this remains a matter of outstanding curiosity to me personally. It is a vexatious matter to have the proof without knowing the reason why. It seems counter-intuitive to most people to have this doubling up of values, and that has worked to keep the bible a closed book to the majority of those who read it, but surely secrecy cannot have been the sole reason for the double letter values?
As astonishing as it may sound, the entire bible may only now be open to a thorough analysis of its contents, and many traditional interpretations may be proven to be wrong by forthcoming exegesis. Biblical studies is entering an exciting time of renewal. Rather than being a cutesy past-time, or a product of self-delusion, gematria with the right number set may provide fresh avenues of exploration to enrich the field of ancient near east and biblical studies.
[i] About Gematria. (2017, July 24). Retrieved from https://web.library.yale.edu/cataloging/hebraica/about-gematria
[ii] Hurowitz, V. (2012). Proverbs: Introduction and Commentary, Miqra LeYisrael, vols 1-2 (Hebrew). Tel Aviv: Am Ove: Jerusalem: The Magnes Press of the Hebrew University.
[iii] Knohl, I. (n.d.). THE ORIGINAL VERSION OF THE PRIESTLY CREATION ACCOUNT AND THE RELIGIOUS SIGNIFICANCE OF THE NUMBER EIGHT IN THE BIBLE. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, (Draft).
[iv] Knohl, I. (2012). Sacred Architecture: The Numerical Dimensions of Biblical Poems. Vetus Testamentum , (62), 189–197.
[v] Lieberman, S. J. (1987). A Mesopotamian Background for the So-Called Aggadic “Measures” of Biblical Hermeneutics? Hebrew Union College Annual, 58, 157–225.
[vi] Miano, D. (2010). Shadow on the Steps: Time Measurement in Ancient Israel. Society of Biblical Lit.
[vii] Hurowitz, V. A. (2010). ‘Tenth Century BCE to 586 BCE: The House of the Lord (Beyt YHWH)’. Where Heaven and Earth Meet: Jerusalem’s Sacred Esplanade.
[viii] Bloch-Smith, E. (2002). ‘Solomon’s Temple: The politics of Ritual Space’. Gittlen (ed.), 83-94.
[ix] Mazor, L. (2002). ‘The correlation between the Garden of Edenand the Temple’. Shnaton, 13: 5-42.
[x] Stager. (1999). ‘Jerusalem and the Garden of Eden’. Eretz Israel, 183-94.
[xi] Wenham, G. (1986). ‘Sanctuary Symbolism in the Garden of Eden Story’. Proceedings of the Ninth World Article on Jewish Studies, Jerusalem 1985, division A: The biblical period, English part: 19-25.
[xii] Kapelrud, A. S. (October 1968). The Number Seven in Ugaritic Texts. Vetus Testamentum, 494-499.